The use of as a framework for the consideration of development began in the early 1990s and has continued into the present century. Dynamic systems theory stresses nonlinear connections (e.g., between earlier and later social assertiveness) and the capacity of a system to reorganize as a phase shift that is stage-like in nature. Another useful concept for developmentalists is the attractor state, a condition (such as teething or stranger anxiety) that helps to determine apparently unrelated behaviors as well as related ones. Dynamic systems theory has been applied extensively to the study of motor development; the theory also has strong associations with some of Bowlby's views about attachment systems. Dynamic systems theory also relates to the concept of the transactional process, a mutually interactive process in which children and parents simultaneously influence each other, producing developmental change in both over time.
Modern cognitive development has integrated the considerations of and the psychology of into the interpretation and modeling of development. Specifically, showed that the successive levels or stages of cognitive development are associated with increasing processing efficiency and capacity. These increases explain differences between stages, progression to higher stages, and individual differences of children who are the same-age and of the same grade-level. However, other theories have moved away from Piagetian stage theories, and are influenced by accounts of information processing, which posit that development is guided by innate evolutionarily-specified and content-specific information processing mechanisms.
was a Russian theorist from the Soviet era, who posited that children learn through hands-on experience and social interactions with members of his/her culture. Unlike Piaget, he claimed that timely and sensitive intervention by adults when a child is on the edge of learning a new task (called the "zone of proximal development") could help children learn new tasks. This adult role is often referred to as the skilled "master," whereas the child is considered the learning apprentice through an educational process often termed "" Martin Hill stated that "The world of reality does not apply to the mind of a child." This technique is called "scaffolding," because it builds upon knowledge children already have with new knowledge that adults can help the child learn. Vygotsky was strongly focused on the role of culture in determining the child's pattern of development, arguing that development moves from the social level to the individual level. In other words, Vygotsky claimed that psychology should focus on the progress of human consciousness through the relationship of an individual and their environment. He felt that if scholars continued to disregard this connection, then this disregard would inhibit the full comprehension of the human consciousness.
Theories of development are very essential since they help to describe the processes through which individuals go through so as to become adults. In this paper, I have explained how Bandura in his social learning theory, Piaget in his cognitive theory and Eric Erickson in his psychosocial theory have explained the process of development of the child through to the adult stage.
Child Development: Growth Stages, Tips & Advice | Parents
Another difference shown by these theories is how they describe the development process. Psychosocial theory explains that the development of the individual is continuous and progressive. According to social learning theory and cognitive theories, the process of development of the child is discontinuous.
Child Development and Early Learning - Transforming …
The rise in crime, drug and alcohol abuse, gang violence, teen parenthood, and suicide in Western society has also caused a rise in concern over morality and moral development. Parents and teachers want to know how to raise moral children, and they turn to moral development theorists to find answers. Freudian personality theories became more widely known to the Western public in the 1960s and were understood to imply that repression of a child's natural drives would lead to neuroses. Many parents and teachers were therefore afraid to their children, and permissiveness became the rule. Cognitive development theories did little to change things, as they focus on reasoning and disregard behavior. Behaviorist theories, with their complete denial of free will in moral decision-making, are unattractive to many and require precise, dedicated, behavior modification techniques.
Bronfenbrenner’s theory gives us tools to describe how all of these systems interact with one another to explain how some children end up as criminals or engage in risk-taking behaviors. When babies are in infancy, they are changing from being totally dependent on caregivers to learning to walk, to talk, to play alongside others, and are realizing they are their individual selves. When children enter early childhood, they continue to improve their large and small motor skills as they run and move more smoothly.They also grow mentally and socially as they enter school and other places where they interact with children. During middle childhood, children continue to grow and improve physically, while also growing mentally as they attend school. They maintain friendships in large same-sex groups and begin forming ideas about gender roles and jobs. During adolescence, people go through puberty as their bodies mature and become capable to reproduce. Teens attempt to assert their individual identity while still needing rules and limits to continue to help them make good life decisions.During later adolescence, young adults begin the tasks of finding a life calling or job and of finding or creating their own next-generation. Final Project PS 220 His theory includes microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem and chromo system. Depression is one major developmental issue No single cause of depression has been identified. However, we know that depression is an illness with a pronounced biological basis. The genes that we inherit, and which continue to be influenced by experience throughout life, may redispose a person to
Theories of Child Development Essay Example for Free
German-American psychologist and his collaborator and wife, , conceptualized eight stages of psychosocial development that they theorized healthy individuals pass through as they develop from infancy to adulthood. The first stage is called "Trust vs. Mistrust" takes place in infancy. The best virtue for the first stage is hope, in the infant learning who to trust and having hope for a supportive group of people to be there for him/her. The second stage is "Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt" with the best virtue being will. This takes place in early childhood where the child learns to become more independent by discovering what they are capable of where if the child is overly controlled, they believe to feel inadequate on surviving by themselves, which can lead to low self-esteem and doubt. The third stage is "Initiative vs. Guilt". The basic virtue that would be gained is purpose and takes place in the play age. This is the stage where the child will be curious and have many interactions with other kids. They will ask many questions as their curiosity grows. If too much guilt is present, the child may have a slower and harder time interacting with other children. The fourth stage is "Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority". The basic virtue for this stage is competency which happens at the school age. This stage is when the child will try to win the approval of others and fit in and understand the value of their accomplishments. The fifth stage is "Identity vs. Role Confusion". The basic virtue gained is fidelity which takes place in adolescence. This is where the child will start to find who he/she is as a person in society. What sex role he/she picks. The sixth stage is "Intimacy vs. Isolation", which happens in young adults and the virtue gained is love. This is where the person will start to share his/her life with someone else intimately and emotionally. In not doing so, it could lead to isolation. The seventh stage is "Generativity vs. Stagnation". This happens in adulthood and the virtue gained would be care. We become stable and start to give back by raising a family and becoming involved in the community. The eighth stage is "Ego Integrity vs. Despair". This happens during maturity and wisdom is gained. When one grows old and they contemplate and look back and seeing the success or failure of their life. This is also the stage where one can also have closure and accept death without fearing anything.