The East African savannas are highly variable ecosystems, so migration enables animals to track spatially and temporally varying resources across the landscape. This gives migratory populations an advantage over resident populations, and allows these populations to rise to very high abundances (Hopcraft et al., 2013). Migrants may also move to access breeding grounds, to reduce the risks of predation and disease, and to enhance their genetic health (Bolger et al., 2008).
In each of these cases, wildebeest are prevented from accessing their wet season ranges due to the blockage of migratory corridors or the loss of habitat in their dispersal areas. Wildebeest are especially vulnerable to human impacts in their wet season ranges. Many protected areas in East Africa primarily conserve the dry season habitat for migratory wildlife, with the wet season ranges occurring almost entirely outside of protected areas on adjacent communal or private lands (Fynn and Bonyongo, 2011). Protected areas also tend to be small and were not designed to conserve all of a migratory species habitat requirements (Fynn and Bonyongo, 2011). As a result, wildebeest must journey outside of protected areas to reach their wet season ranges. Here they face a number of pressures due to human population growth, land use change and increasing development.
This challenging study examines the most dramatic consequences of European expansion and looks at why millions of ex-Europeans now live in the Americas while so few are in Asia and Africa and why few Africans migrated after the slave trade had been abolished. The authors further address the issues of the demography of migrant points of origin; female migration; integration or isolation of the migrants; returban migration; and capital movements related to migration.
117For more on black migrations in the post-Reconstruction period and the 20th century, see Nicholas Lemann’s The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America (New York: Knopf, 1991); Nell Irvin Painter, Exodusters: Black Migrants to Kansas After Reconstruction (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1986); Douglas Flamming, Bound for Freedom: Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005). For a concise essay on the historical literature on this topic, see Joe William Trotter, “Great Migration: An Interpretation,” in Africana 3, Kwame Appiah and Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005): 53–60.
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Migration across the Red Sea and from Egypt was a very long process by both Egyptians and pastoralists respectively. According to historical sources, the migration process pre-date Islam, though it continued energetically after Islam. The Muslim Egypt and the Christian Nubia had friendly relations and treaty with Muslim Egypt and the trade between them flourished. Nubia provided an obstacle to downward penetration of pastoralists and Islam. However, during the 14th century, the Egyptian Mamluk conquered the Nubian. Therefore, the southward penetration of Islam intensified. As the penetration intensified, the Funj kingdom arose bringing to an end the Christian Nubian kingdom. The new established kingdom expanded northwards and became an empire. The expansion caused some parts of the empire to get Arabized and Islamized. The Islamization in west and south of the Funj Empire continued through migration and trade links. According to Islamic history, 16th century migration of holy-men and Muslim scholars from North Africa and Upper Egypt as well as Arabia resulted into a significant Islamization of the region.
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The information network and cultural contact increase the horizons of job opportunities. Thus, migration generates more migration, which signifies the role of information network in the stimulation of migration. In India, the Sikhs are the most adventurous and well-informed people, who migrate even to the less developed and less attractive areas like Bolivia, Columbia, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Central African Republic, Chad, Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen, etc.
The aim of the thesis is to contribute to the better understanding of determinants and consequences of international migration from Senegal, a West-African country with a longstanding tradition of migration to both African and European countries. Using a longitudinal (retrospective) and multi-sited micro dataset on 'Migration between Africa and Europe' (MAFE-SN), three selected topics are explored empirically. Firstly, the research examines the role of individual and contextual factors for the migration decision-making process, analysing jointly selection into migration attempts and departure. Results indicate that selection processes at the decision and realisation stages do not necessarily coincide, for instance with regard to the role of sex, education, but also immigration policies.
Secondly, the impact of international migration experience on investments in real estate or business assets in the country of origin is examined. Direct migration experience
is found to stimulate investment, though the effect varies according to the type of asset, the location and the destination region. International migration also appears as a way to overcome certain social disadvantages in terms of access to property. However, nonmigrants with access to migrant networks are not more likely to invest. Thirdly, the thesis investigates the effect of return migrant status on occupational attainment in Dakar. The main result obtained, a positive effect on self-employment, conforms to previous studies' findings on other countries. Yet, when using variables on the hierarchical socio-economic status or prestige position of the occupation, the positive effect of return migration is confined to wage-employed activities. In addition to the empirical analyses, the thesis contributes to the conceptual and methodological discussion on measurement of immigration policies. A database with detailed data on immigration policies in France, Italy
and Spain over the period from 1960 to 2008 is constructed and qualitative information is converted into quantitative scores
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The “third world”continent of Africa, is incontestably the continent of controversies, in political, economic and most importantly in social views. To master the study of Africa it is important to know all about its history from the beginning of colonialism to its economic importance today. In many areas, colonial domination, cleavage, trade, migration and also religion had brought on the African countries, profound changes in the African economy but also in the social structure of these countries. Started from the colonialism, Africa has seen many different period times which define its history, so meaningful so that the purpose of my paper is to explore conscientiously each area of them according to the references of historical researchers. It first starts with the beginning of colonialism in Africa then, the process of decolonization in African countries, stirring up to Independence movement marked by the Pre and Post-independence and finally end by Africa today and its international relations.
COLONIALISM IN AFRICA
History and colonization. Before the process of colonization, Africans had their different ways of life under their different kinds of governments and kingdoms and had great Empires such as in Mali and Songhai. Some were nomadic hunters and others were sculptors of wood, gold, or bronze (The Impact of Colonialism on African Life). The second phase of colonialism, or "modern colonialism" started with the Age of Discovery between the 15th and 20th centuries and involved European powers competing against each other for sequestering new territories rather than alliance-building in the discrete sense , as was commonly done during the classical era (Post-Colonial Relations between Europe and its Former African colonies). During the colonial period, colonial powers have influenced the development progress of Africa. Colonial formers were essentially Europeans (French and British but there were also Portuguese, Italian and ...