Research on individual characteristics of leaders benefited significantly from the field of psychology. For instance, in Perception and Misperception in International Politics, Jervis (1976) illustrated the importance of psychological factors in his investigation of the impact of misperceptions in foreign policy. Likewise, Vertzberger’s (1990) The World in Their Minds looked at the impact of information processing on foreign policy decision making. Various other works deriving from psychological approaches all share the assumption that studying political leadership offered a lot to explain foreign policy. The interest in the psychological characteristics of decision makers has expanded to various specific topics; here, operational code and leadership trait analysis are discussed as examples. Other relevant research studies the impact of bounded rationality, motivated and unmotivated bias, cognitive maps, scripts, and schemas on foreign policy making.
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The study of decision-making dynamics in small and large groups also benefited from the field of psychology and has continually attracted foreign policy scholars to conduct further research about its effect on foreign policy decision making. The groundbreaking work was Janis’s (1972) Victims of Groupthink. In this book, Janis illustrated that small groups of decision makers were prone to ignore, misinterpret, or even reject new information in order to avoid controversy and lack of cohesion within the group. During the 1990s, further research on this topic explored what happens beyond groupthink (Hart, Stern, & Sundelius, 1997), suggesting that there is more to explore than merely assuming that groups act differently and that contextual factors may affect the decision-making processes in groups.
rest of the world. d.) Why was Vietnam so important in US foreign policy?  The US's foreign policy was that it was not to interfere with international foreign affairs and vice-versa. The Vietnamese war represented an affair the US could not easily exit themselves from. Eisenhower and Kennedy helped South Vietnam by supplying them weapons and advisors to help the war as part of their 'containment' policies to stop the domino spread of communism. President Johnson later…
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From this point, the essay will describe some of the recent events that have caused tensions to rise between Russia and the West. Then, the essay will connect this situation with a broader historical perspective regarding Russian foreign policy. Finally, the essay will reflect on the political implications of the present situation. The main theme that will emerge is that current Russian foreign policy is something of a reiteration of past Russian foreign policy, and that this may be driven by the fact that Putin himself played a prominent role in Russia's Communist past.
History essay on US foreign policy - Marked by Teachers
However this can also be seen as an economic factor as Roosevelt only said this to protect the interests of American businesses. Woodrow Wilson was then influenced by economic factors when deciding whether to go to war or not. At first he decided not to go because it would be very expensive and would stop America from concentrating on its own economy. But he then decided to go to war because if they didn't then the US would lose billions of dollars which they had lent to the allies as if the allies lost they would be broke and would not be able to repay debts. Also the American economy would benefit because of all of the munitions that were being manufactured in America and would be sold to the government. Altogether I think the economic factors were the biggest influence in shaping American foreign policy as most of Americas diplomacy depended on money. Although there were other factors that shaped foreign policy like strategy, politics and culture none of these were deemed to be as important to the American government.
As discussed earlier, there is often an increased interest in foreign policy decisions and decision-making processes during war times. In the foreign policy analysis literature, bureaucratic politics of decision making and the public’s role in foreign policy often benefit from this interest. Yet the changing circumstances of world politics create new challenges and demand more work in explaining foreign policy decisions during wars. For instance, the processes of decision making in the U.S. administration during the 2003 Iraq War call for a renewed attention to bureaucratic politics of foreign policy. Similarly, the somewhat coordinated nature of protests across the globe during initial months of the Iraq War (likewise during the World Trade Organization meetings) constitutes an interesting topic to investigate. Furthermore, in the extant literature about the role of public opinion on foreign policy, there is a heavy focus on the United States; FPA will definitely benefit from expanding this view and including more comparative cases about the influence of public opinion on foreign policy. Specifically, there is a dearth of literature on the role of public opinion in nondemocracies. As Telhami (1993) showed the conventional wisdom here may not necessarily be true, and FPA definitely needs more research on the role of public opinion on foreign policy in nondemocracies.
Foreign Policy Term Paper Topics
pragmatic/realistic approaches. Taking into account that each country is independent from each other, and with differing interests, this essay will give multiple reasons as to why such a variety in policy exists. Accordingly, this essay will show a propensity for states to apply the foreign policy development strategy that best fits their needs. Although there may be a sense of preferential treatment for some strategies, Latin American countries are not inherently bound to a specific development…